This is what you should start with, especially for a newer “consultant”. This involves addressing the problem approach and structuring an approach. This means developing multiple hypotheses, key questions that you can prove or disprove. I am a firm believer in intuition.
But intuition is often backed by years of experience. Consultants are often generalists, which means that they lack the 30 or 40 years of in-depth industry experience that their clients usually have. Therefore, the research will help you focus on the key factors that you can support with concrete data, given your time constraints. Your boss or client may have an “instinct” to solve a specific problem based on their experience, and that's OK.
However, a good consultant will look for hard data to prove or disprove that “instinct” before moving forward. Whether you're consulting on a project or not, or if you're dealing with problems in your personal or work life, this article explains the mentality behind seven problem solving approaches you can adopt in the consulting world to start breaking down your problems and tackling them like a professional.